I am a Docent in the Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences at the University of Eastern Finland. My primary research interest is in how the cell works based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics and and the physics of complex dissipative dynamical systems.

Keith Baverstock’s homepage

E-mail Keith@kbaverstock.org

This paper, published in print in July 2021,critically examines the role of the gene in biology since the inception of the term in 1910. The Danish plant breeder, Wilhelm Johanssen, as well as coining the terms ‘gene’ and ‘phenotype’ proposed what is now universally accepted as the basis for heredity, the genotype-conception. Genetics, if the numbers of publications are a guide, is today a thriving scientific discipline, along with theories of evolution, development, and morphogenesis, based on the gene and the genotype-conception.This paper asserts that Johannsen was mistaken and that heredity is based on the phenotype-conception at the level of the gametes. The object of the paper is stimulate discussion on this important conceptual issue for biology.

Editorial: Polygenic Scores: Are they a Public Health hazard?

 The Gene: an appraisal